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Almond Encyclopedia - the medicinal value of bitter almond

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2019/01/12 00:00
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1. Antitussive and antiasthmatic effects
 
Bitter amygdalin contains amygdalin, which can be hydrolyzed by the intestinal microbial enzyme or the bitter almond enzyme contained in the bitter almond itself to produce a trace amount of hydrocyanic acid and benzaldehyde, which has an inhibitory effect on the respiratory center. Cough, antiasthmatic effect. "Materia Medica" records "Almonds, both the ability to disperse the wind and cold, and the ability to breathe off the breath." Relieving cough and phlegm and relieving asthma, the cough, phlegm and wheezing of the main diseases of the lung system are strongly targeted. Therefore, ancient and modern doctors use it as a pulmonary medicine, regardless of internal injuries, new diseases, dysentery, and involving the lungs. More use. Using the guinea pig isolated organ test, the almond water extract can reduce the sensitivity of the organ to ammonia water stimulation, and has an obvious antitussive effect against the excitatory effects of histamine, acetylcholine and strontium chloride on the tracheal smooth muscle. Using SO2 coughing method, the inhibition rate of cough frequency was 26%, 22.8%, 25.3% after the mice were given amygdalin 1mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 100mg/kg for 30min. The effect of the bitter almond extract 48.3 mg/kg was 39.7% stronger than the equivalent amount of amygdalin. Bitter almond can promote lung respiratory function by promoting the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant (PS). Bitter almond can not only promote the synthesis of PS, but also improve various physiological and biochemical indicators related to lung (such as lung homogenate and lung water volume). , total phospholipids in bronchial lavage and pathological sections, etc.).
 
2, the role of the digestive system
 
Almonds are bitter and rich in fatty oils. Fatty oil can improve the lubrication effect of intestinal contents on mucous membranes, so almonds have the function of laxative. While amygdalin is decomposed by enzymes to form hydrocyanic acid, it also produces benzaldehyde, which inhibits the activity of pepsin and thus affects digestive function. The pepsin hydrolysate of the water-soluble part of the almond was administered to the carbon tetrachloride-treated rats at a dose of 500 mg/kg, and it was found to inhibit the increase of AST, ALT levels and hydroxyproline content, and inhibit the euglobulin. Prolonged dissolution time. The pepsin hydrolysate of the water-soluble part of almond can inhibit the proliferation of rat liver connective tissue, but can not inhibit the increase of AST and ALT levels in mice caused by D-galactosamine.
 
3, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect
 
The water extract of defatted bitter almond has an inhibitory effect on the writhing reaction induced by acetic acid and the formation of rat granulomatous inflammation caused by cotton balls. In the rat foot joint edema method, the water-soluble protein components KR-A and KR-B 5 mg/kg of 40 mg/kg almond were intravenously inhibited. The mouse pain model test showed that when the KR-A or KR-B was administered intravenously at 5 mg/kg, the analgesic rates were 40.7% and 58.2%, respectively. They had a ED50 for oral carrageenan foot swelling of 13.9 mg/kg and 6.4 mg/kg, respectively. The mouse hot plate method and acetic acid writhing method confirmed that amygdalin has an analgesic effect, but is different from morphine analgesic. The benzaldehyde benzoin condensing enzyme produced by the decomposition of amygdalin produces benzoin. Benzoin has an analgesic effect. Therefore, the use of bitter almonds in the treatment of advanced liver cancer in China can relieve the suffering of patients, and some do not even need to take painkillers.
 
4, anti-tumor effect
 
In the early 20th century, amygdalin was first isolated from almonds. In 1920, amygdalin was first used in the United States to treat tumors. Dr. Ernest Krebs was the first person to use amygdalin in medicine in the United States and called it vitamin B17. Since the 1950s, amygdalin has been widely used in the United States, Mexico and other countries to treat tumors. The trade name is vitamin B17 or laetrile, but the anti-tumor effect of amygdalin has not been recognized by the FDA. There have been controversies and there are two opposite views. The pro-party believes that amygdalin is a vitamin B17 that has the function of preventing and treating tumors, and puts forward some theoretical and experimental data. If the anaerobic degradation of tumor cells is predominant, the final product is lactic acid. The acidic environment is beneficial to increase the activity of β-glucosidase, and the amygdalin is decomposed into more benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid in tumor cells. Produces selective killing of tumor cells. Contrary to this point of view, it is believed that amygdalin is not a vitamin at all, nor has it an anti-cancer effect, or even a toxic substance. Although the anti-tumor effect of amygdalin is still being debated, it is legal to manufacture and use amygdalin in more than 20 countries including Belgium, Germany, Italy, Mexico and the Philippines.
 
There are a lot of reports on the anti-tumor effect of almonds, but the results are not consistent. Satoh Akio (1979) reported that the crude agent of the almond hot water extract inhibited human cervical cancer JTC-26 strain by 50%-70%. The results of Fang Wenlong et al. (1986) showed that the inhibition rate of liver extract and sarcoma 180 was 61.7%-77.1% in the abdominal injection or gavage of bitter almond extract. The test results of Che Wenyi et al. (1987) showed that the anti-tumor active ingredients extracted from bitter almonds were intraperitoneally injected into transplanted liver cancer mice at 300 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, and the tumor inhibition rate was 72.0%. 60.8%, 51.0%. Free uptake of bitter almonds by mice can inhibit the growth of Ehrlich ascites cancer cells and prolong survival. It has also been reported that amygdalin can prevent and treat dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer and shrink tumor focus. However, Mai Weiqi et al. (1981) extracted amygdalin (10% aqueous solution) from bitter almonds for animal experiments, and showed no antibacterial activity against mouse liver cancer and S180. A human case study of the efficacy of amygdalin on cancer by the NCI (American Cancer Society) ended in 1978 but did not reach a clear conclusion. The United States conducted a variety of cutting-edge clinical trials in 1982, and concluded that laetrile has no clinical value in treating cancer.
 
The research on the anti-tumor mechanism of almonds mainly includes the following aspects.
 
1 Some scholars believe that cancer cells contain a large amount of β-glucosidase, which can hydrolyze amygdalin to produce hydrocyanic acid (HCN), benzaldehyde and glucose. Since cancer cells lack thiol-producing enzymes, the enzyme has a detoxification effect on HCN, making HCN a non-toxic thionitride, while normal cells lack β-glucosidase and contain a large amount of thiol-producing enzyme. According to this theory, amygdalin should be able to selectively kill cancer cells, and is almost harmless to normal cells.
 
 
2 Amygdalin can help trypsin digest the clear mucin membrane of cancer cells, make white blood cells in the body more accessible to cancer cells, and phagocytose cancer cells.
 
3 It has been found that amygdalin similar to NaSCN and NaOCN can affect the absorption of phosphate and amino acids by thymidine into hepatoma DNA and tumor cells.
 
5, hypoglycemic effect
 
Amygdalin has the effect of preventing diabetes caused by the antitumor drug allamide. The use of alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in mice proved that blood glucose was measured after pre-intraperitoneal injection of 3g/kg amygdalin for 48h. The results showed that amygdalin can specifically inhibit the increase of blood glucose caused by alloxan, the intensity of action and the bitterness in blood. The concentration of amygdalin is related.
 
6, blood lipid lowering effect
 
Clinically, 24 patients with blood lipids of 200-260 gave 100 g of raw almonds as the main fat source every day. After 3 weeks, the blood lipids decreased by 10.1%. Eighty-five hyperlipidemia patients took 75g of almonds daily for 4 weeks and continued to observe for 4 weeks after stopping taking them. The results showed that almonds can significantly reduce the blood lipid levels of patients with hyperlipidemia. The decrease of serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the most significant, down 10.6% and 8.1%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) did not change significantly, apolipoprotein B (Apo B) decreased significantly, and apolipoprotein A1 (Apo A1) increased significantly. Spiller (1990) believes that monounsaturated fatty acids in almonds help to reduce mildly elevated blood lipids in patients without strict dietary restrictions.
 
7, beauty effect
 
According to the theory of lung and fur, in the clinical treatment of certain skin diseases can be treated from Xuanfei method, compatibility with edible almonds, often get a good effect. Modern research has proved that the fatty oil contained in bitter almond can soften the skin stratum corneum, moisturize and dry skin, protect the nerve endings blood vessels and tissues and organs, and inhibit bacteria. In addition, HCN produced by enzymatic hydrolysis can inhibit active tyrosinase in the body, eliminate pigmentation, freckles, dark spots, etc., thereby achieving a cosmetic effect.
 
8, other effects
 
Zhao Sulian and other studies found that intramuscular injection of amygdalin in mice can significantly promote the activity of mouse NK cells and stimulate the transformation and proliferation of T lymphocytes. Li Chunhua et al observed the effect of amygdalin on the phagocytosis of hepatic Kupffer cells in the same experimental animal, and observed the relationship between rDNA activation and hepatic Kupffer cells by Ag-NOR method. The results showed that amygdalin [3mg/(d·d)] had a significant effect on its phagocytic function and on the activation of rDNA in liver Kupffer cells, and it has the function of enhancing immunity. Amygdalin has anti-mutation effect, which can reduce the number of micronucleated polychromatic red blood cells caused by dipyrone, metronidazole and mitomycin C.
 
Bitter almond oil also has deworming and bactericidal effects. In vitro tests have a killing effect on human aphids and mites, and have an antibacterial effect on typhoid and paratyphoid bacillus. Almonds also have anti-aphid and trichomoniasis infections for the treatment of aplastic anemia. Amygdalin has also shown obvious curative effect in the treatment of schistosomiasis liver fibrosis and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Its mechanism of action is to increase hepatic blood flow and increase collagenase I, III, The degradation activity of collagen IV is related to the formation of sinusoidal capillary vasculature by affecting the metabolism of IV collagen and laminin.